Author’s Note

 

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Huffman, J., & Kossoff, E. (2006). State of the ketogenic diet(s) in epilepsy. Current Neurology And Neuroscience Reports, 6(4), 332-340. doi:10.1007/s11910-006-0027-6

 

Trepanowski, J., & Bloomer, R. (2010). The impact of religious fasting on human health. Nutrition Journal, 9(1). doi:10.1186/1475-2891-9-57

 

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Chapter 1

 

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Corfe BM, e. (2018). The multifactorial interplay of diet, the microbiome and appetite control: current knowledge and future challenges. – PubMed – NCBI . Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 20 June 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25612669

 

Davison, J., Lickwar, C., Song, L., Breton, G., Crawford, G., & Rawls, J. (2017). Microbiota regulate intestinal epithelial gene expression by suppressing the transcription factor Hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha. Genome Research, 27(7), 1195-1206. doi:10.1101/gr.220111.116

 

Rivière, A., Selak, M., Lantin, D., Leroy, F., & De Vuyst, L. (2016). Bifidobacteria and Butyrate-Producing Colon Bacteria: Importance and Strategies for Their Stimulation in the Human Gut. Frontiers In Microbiology, 7. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2016.00979

 

Sarris, J., Logan, A., Akbaraly, T., Amminger, G., Balanzá-Martínez, V., & Freeman, M. et al. (2015). Nutritional medicine as mainstream in psychiatry. The Lancet Psychiatry, 2(3), 271-274. doi:10.1016/s2215-0366(14)00051-0

 

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Teicholz, N. (2015). The scientific report guiding the US dietary guidelines: is it scientific?. BMJ, h4962. doi:10.1136/bmj.h4962

 

Malhotra, A. (2013). Saturated fat is not the major issue. BMJ, 347(oct22 1), f6340-f6340. doi:10.1136/bmj.f6340

 

Malhotra, A., Redberg, R., & Meier, P. (2017). Saturated fat does not clog the arteries: coronary heart disease is a chronic inflammatory condition, the risk of which can be effectively reduced from healthy lifestyle interventions. British Journal Of Sports Medicine, 51(15), 1111-1112. doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-097285

 

Patterson, E., Wall, R., Fitzgerald, G., Ross, R., & Stanton, C. (2012). Health Implications of High Dietary Omega-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids. Journal Of Nutrition And Metabolism, 2012, 1-16. doi:10.1155/2012/539426

 

H, G. (2018). Can adults adequately convert alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3)? – PubMed – NCBI . Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 11 July 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9637947

 

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Martin, C., Milinsk, M., Visentainer, J., Matsushita, M., & de-Souza, N. (2007). Trans fatty acid-forming processes in foods: a review. Anais Da Academia Brasileira De Ciências, 79(2), 343-350. doi:10.1590/s0001-37652007000200015

 

Brouwer, I., Wanders, A., & Katan, M. (2010). Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans – A Quantitative Review. Plos ONE, 5(3), e9434. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0009434

 

Tavernise, S. (2015). F.D.A. Sets 2018 Deadline to Rid Foods of Trans Fats. Nytimes.com. Retrieved 11 July 2018, from https://www.nytimes.com/2015/06/17/health/fda-gives-food-industry-three-years-eliminate-trans-fats.html

 

ML, F. (2018). Rethinking dietary cholesterol. – PubMed – NCBI . Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 11 July 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22037012

 

Jones PJ, e. (2018). Dietary cholesterol feeding suppresses human cholesterol synthesis measured by deuterium incorporation and urinary mevalonic acid levels. – PubMed – NCBI . Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 11 July 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8857917

 

Chapter 2

 

Newman, J., & Verdin, E. (2014). Ketone bodies as signaling metabolites. Trends In Endocrinology & Metabolism, 25(1), 42-52. doi:10.1016/j.tem.2013.09.002

 

Halevy, A., Peleg-Weiss, L., Cohen, R., & Shuper, A. (2012). An Update on the Ketogenic Diet, 2012. Rambam Maimonides Medical Journal, 3(1). doi:10.5041/rmmj.10072

 

Brodie, M. (2010). Antiepileptic drug therapy the story so far. Seizure, 19(10), 650-655. doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2010.10.027

 

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Lefevre, F., & Aronson, N. (2000). Ketogenic Diet for the Treatment of Refractory Epilepsy in Children: A Systematic Review of Efficacy. Pediatrics, 105(4), e46-e46. doi:10.1542/peds.105.4.e46

 

Bueno, N., de Melo, I., de Oliveira, S., & da Rocha Ataide, T. (2013). Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. British Journal Of Nutrition, 110(07), 1178-1187. doi:10.1017/s0007114513000548

 

Paoli, A., Bianco, A., Damiani, E., & Bosco, G. (2014). Ketogenic Diet in Neuromuscular and Neurodegenerative Diseases. Biomed Research International, 2014, 1-10. doi:10.1155/2014/474296

 

Veech, R. (2004). The therapeutic implications of ketone bodies: the effects of ketone bodies in pathological conditions: ketosis, ketogenic diet, redox states, insulin resistance, and mitochondrial metabolism. Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes And Essential Fatty Acids, 70(3), 309-319. doi:10.1016/j.plefa.2003.09.007

 

McKenzie, A., Hallberg, S., Creighton, B., Volk, B., Link, T., & Abner, M. et al. (2017). A Novel Intervention Including Individualized Nutritional Recommendations Reduces Hemoglobin A1c Level, Medication Use, and Weight in Type 2 Diabetes. JMIR Diabetes, 2(1), e5. doi:10.2196/diabetes.6981

 

Newman, J., & Verdin, E. (2014). Ketone bodies as signaling metabolites. Trends In Endocrinology & Metabolism, 25(1), 42-52. doi:10.1016/j.tem.2013.09.002

 

Bach, A., & Babayan, V. (1982). Medium-chain triglycerides: an update. The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition, 36(5), 950-962. doi:10.1093/ajcn/36.5.950

 

Chapter 3

 

Zeevi, D., Korem, T., Zmora, N., Israeli, D., Rothschild, D., & Weinberger, A. et al. (2015). Personalized Nutrition by Prediction of Glycemic Responses. Cell, 163(5), 1079-1094. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2015.11.001

 

Temple, J., Bernard, C., Lipshultz, S., Czachor, J., Westphal, J., & Mestre, M. (2017). The Safety of Ingested Caffeine: A Comprehensive Review. Frontiers In Psychiatry, 8. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00080

 

Research, I. (2001). Pharmacology of Caffeine. National Academies Press (US). Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK223808/

 

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Chapter 4

 

Miller, V., Villamena, F., & Volek, J. (2018). Nutritional Ketosis and Mitohormesis: Potential Implications for Mitochondrial Function and Human Health. Journal Of Nutrition And Metabolism, 2018, 1-27. doi:10.1155/2018/5157645

 

Gardner, B., Lally, P., & Wardle, J. (2012). Making health habitual: the psychology of ‘habit-formation’ and general practice. British Journal Of General Practice, 62(605), 664-666. doi:10.3399/bjgp12x659466

 

Neistat, C. (2018). Calorie Detective. NYTimes.com – Video. Retrieved 8 September 2018, from https://www.nytimes.com/video/opinion/100000002061153/calorie-detective.html

 

Urban, L., Dallal, G., Robinson, L., Ausman, L., Saltzman, E., & Roberts, S. (2010). The Accuracy of Stated Energy Contents of Reduced-Energy, Commercially Prepared Foods. Journal Of The American Dietetic Association, 110(1), 116-123. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.10.003

 

Guidance for Industry: Nutrition Labeling Manual – A Guide for Developing and Using Data Bases. (2018). Fda.gov. Retrieved 8 September 2018, from https://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/LabelingNutrition/ucm063113.htm

Brehm, B., Seeley, R., Daniels, S., & D’Alessio, D. (2003). A Randomized Trial Comparing a Very Low Carbohydrate Diet and a Calorie-Restricted Low Fat Diet on Body Weight and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Healthy Women. The Journal Of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 88(4), 1617-1623. doi:10.1210/jc.2002-021480

 

Nordmann, A., Nordmann, A., Briel, M., Keller, U., Yancy, W., Brehm, B., & Bucher, H. (2006). Effects of Low-Carbohydrate vs Low-Fat Diets on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Archives Of Internal Medicine, 166(3), 285. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.3.285

 

Sharman, M., Kraemer, W., Love, D., Avery, N., Gómez, A., Scheett, T., & Volek, J. (2002). A Ketogenic Diet Favorably Affects Serum Biomarkers for Cardiovascular Disease in Normal-Weight Men. The Journal Of Nutrition, 132(7), 1879-1885. doi:10.1093/jn/132.7.1879

 

Must, A., & McKeown, N. (2012). The Disease Burden Associated with Overweight and Obesity. Mdtext.Com, Inc.. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279095/

 

Hussein M Dashti, N. (2004). Long-term effects of a ketogenic diet in obese patients. Experimental & Clinical Cardiology, 9(3), 200. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2716748/

 

Gershuni VM, e. (2018). Nutritional Ketosis for Weight Management and Reversal of Metabolic Syndrome. – PubMed – NCBI . Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 6 September 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30128963

 

Taus M, e. (2018). A very low calorie ketogenic diet improves weight loss and quality of life in patients with adjustable gastric banding. – PubMed – NCBI . Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 6 September 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28604374

 

Bueno NB, e. (2018). Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. – PubMed – NCBI . Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 6 September 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23651522

 

DeHaven J, e. (2018). Nitrogen and sodium balance and sympathetic-nervous-system activity in obese subjects treated with a low-calorie protein or mixed diet. – PubMed – NCBI. Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 6 September 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7351972

 

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Palmer, B. (2014). Regulation of Potassium Homeostasis. Clinical Journal Of The American Society Of Nephrology, 10(6), 1050-1060. doi:10.2215/cjn.08580813

 

Mills, K., Chen, J., Yang, W., Appel, L., Kusek, J., & Alper, A. et al. (2016). Sodium Excretion and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease. JAMA, 315(20), 2200. doi:10.1001/jama.2016.4447

 

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Payne, A., Chassard, C., & Lacroix, C. (2012). Gut microbial adaptation to dietary consumption of fructose, artificial sweeteners and sugar alcohols: implications for host-microbe interactions contributing to obesity. Obesity Reviews, 13(9), 799-809. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789x.2012.01009.x

 

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Arrigoni E, e. (2018). Human gut microbiota does not ferment erythritol. – PubMed – NCBI . Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 17 September 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16277764

 

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Ur-Rehman S, e. (2018). Xylitol: a review on bioproduction, application, health benefits, and related safety issues. – PubMed – NCBI . Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 17 September 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24915309

 

Wölnerhanssen BK, e. (2018). Gut hormone secretion, gastric emptying, and glycemic responses to erythritol and xylitol in lean and obese subjects. – PubMed – NCBI . Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 17 September 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27117004

 

Tey SL, e. (2018). Effects of aspartame-, monk fruit-, stevia- and sucrose-sweetened beverages on postprandial glucose, insulin and energy intake. – PubMed – NCBI . Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 17 September 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27956737

 

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Kimura T, e. (2018). d-Allulose enhances postprandial fat oxidation in healthy humans. – PubMed – NCBI . Ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 17 September 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28935140

 

Wood, A., Kaptoge, S., Butterworth, A., Willeit, P., Warnakula, S., & Bolton, T. et al. (2018). Risk thresholds for alcohol consumption: combined analysis of individual-participant data for 599 912 current drinkers in 83 prospective studies. The Lancet, 391(10129), 1513-1523. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(18)30134-x

 

Wasserman DH (January 2009). “Four grams of glucose”. American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism. 296 (1): E11–21. 

 

Chapter 5

 

Zonulin and Its Regulation of Intestinal Barrier Function: The Biological Door to Inflammation, Autoimmunity, and Cancer

Alessio Fasano, Physiological Reviews 2011 91:1, 151-175 

 

Fasano, A. (2012). Zonulin, regulation of tight junctions, and autoimmune diseases. Annals Of The New York Academy Of Sciences, 1258(1), 25-33. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06538.x

 

Hollon, J., Puppa, E., Greenwald, B., Goldberg, E., Guerrerio, A., & Fasano, A. (2015). Effect of Gliadin on Permeability of Intestinal Biopsy Explants from Celiac Disease Patients and Patients with Non-Celiac Gluten Sensitivity. Nutrients, 7(3), 1565-1576. doi:10.3390/nu7031565

 

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Hussin, N. M., Shahar, S., Teng, N. I. M. F., Ngah, W. Z. W., & Das, S. K. (2013). Efficacy of Fasting and Calorie Restriction (FCR) on mood and depression among ageing men. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 17(8), 674–680. doi:10.1007/s12603-013-0344-9

 

Serrano, J., Cassanye, A., Martín-Gari, M., Granado-Serrano, A., & Portero-Otín, M. (2016). Effect of Dietary Bioactive Compounds on Mitochondrial and Metabolic Flexibility. Diseases, 4(1), 14. doi:10.3390/diseases4010014

 

Chapter 6

 

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Randy Cohen, Chirag Bavishi, Alan Rozanski. Purpose in Life and Its Relationship to All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Events. Psychosomatic Medicine, 2015; 1

 

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